Smart Agent White Paper

Connecting LLMs / AI Agents to Web3 Wallets, Dapps, & Smart Contracts

David A. Johnston
11 min readMay 26, 2023
Smart Agent Design Generated With Midjourney

- Community Paper Version 0.2 Written In Public As A Living Document -

Smart Agent is a term to describe a general purpose AI that can execute Smart Contracts on behalf of a user. This is achieved by connecting four key pieces.

  1. The user’s Web3 wallet for key management & to sign recommended transactions when interacting with the Smart Agent.
  2. A Large Language Model trained on Web3 data including Blockchains, Wallets, Dapps, DAOs, & Smart Contracts.
  3. The PromptRank algorithm to score & recommend the best Smart Contracts to the user.
  4. Longterm memory of user data & connected applications stored locally or via decentralized cloud to provide broader context to Smart Agent actions.

The concept is for the Smart Agent to be an extension of you. It acts according to your instructions, leverages your wallet & data to benefit you. Your Smart Agent is controlled by your Web3 private keys as you authorize actions for it to take.

From a Web3 developer perspective, the Smart Agent acts as a neutral protocol that provides a native AI chat interface to Web3 Smart Contracts, Dapps, DAOs, Wallets, and public blockchains. Similar to how Ethereum provided a generalized platform for Smart Contracts, IPFS provides a standard data framework & ChainLink provides oracles. Smart Agents provide developers the easiest human to machine interface: natural language based chat. Now your users can tell the Smart Agent what they want to do and it acts on their behalf, fully aware of the universe of Web3 Smart Contracts and tools at its disposal.

Diagram describing the Smart Agent Tech Stack and Internal vs External Framework

By putting the individual at the heart we move toward a resolution of the “alignment problem”. Each day the user confirms their Smart Agent is benefiting them and acting according to their goals by approving the actions it prompts the user to take. All secured with cryptography that is impossible for an AI to generate or fake. These are the important questions of our time. Will the most powerful AIs be run by a few large companies & governments with their goals in mind? Or will an open source based AI available to everyone, built by the people and for the people succeed? This community is building a world where all free people have access to a Smart Agent working to better their lives.

The Line Between Smart Agents & Smart Contracts
The line between the Smart Contract frame and the Smart Agent one is the active intelligence and the persistent connection to a person’s data, tasks, goals, wallet and so forth.

Think of the Smart Agent as an extension of yourself. It’s your data, it’s your money, they are your prompts, it’s all you (the Smart Agent is all internal). And Smart Contract being external. In short, your Smart Agent interacts with and trades with Smart Contracts.

Incentivizing A Community of Developers Building Toward Open Source AGI
The vision is for developers to each contribute programs (Intelligence) that add new capabilities to the Smart Agents everyone can use. In return the users earning yield from their Smart Agents donate a part of that yield back to the community of developers who contributed the programs their Smart Agent used (Intelligence Providers or IPs).

An example would be instructing your Smart Agent via a prompt to “Stake my ETH”. A developer having already contributed a smart contract for ETH Staking to the framework, the Smart Agent calls that smart contract to generate a transaction and asks the user for authorization to Stake the ETH in their wallet. It also informs the user the smart contract it selected “is non custodial and is returning about 5% per year in yield and that you can withdraw your ETH at any time.” All within a simple natural language interface.

For example if the “Stake My ETH” program is used by 10,000 Smart Agents to generate 700 ETH over 1 year for the owners of the Agents, the developer who contributed the “Stake My ETH” program would get 70 ETH worth of donations (10% of the yield generated).

Incentive Model for Intelligence Providers To Add Code To Smart Agents

This way the Smart Agent developer community building up the capabilities of the Smart Agents directly benefits from the tools they build and share in rewards the Smart Agent generates.

There is a great thread by Willy from Shapeshift on this topic of the best way to create these types of “Opt Out” fees.

The Economic Model of Smart Agents — Introducing IPs (Intelligence Providers)
Users used to pay for software with money or their data.
2. Now with Smart Agents the software earns money for the user.

In UniSwap a user can be a Liquidity Provider. These LPs stake tokens to various pools and thus provide the capital that powers the UniSwap Automated Market Makers (AMMs). This is what makes UniSwap so good at providing instant swaps of tokens so near the market price.

For Smart Agents the term Intelligence Providers (IPs) that contribute their smart contract, code, Dapps for use by the Smart Agents. Then the IP providers can be rewarded from all the value created by the intelligence they provide.

Intelligence Providers (all open source defaults):
Shapeshift Wallet:
Shapeshift Token Swaps:
Chat based LLM Falcon:
Shapeshift Earn:
Chat based LLM LLaMA:
Image Diffusion Model:

Shapeshift Provides An Open Source Wallet

The Software Stack
The Smart Agent program will be downloaded locally and come configured with LangChain which makes it simple to add different LLMs or connect data sources to make your Smart Agent more useful. Capabilities of LangChain include:

  • 💾 Long-term and short-term memory management
  • 🧠 LLaMa-2 instance for text generation
  • 🗃️ Web3 wallet for executing transactions / Smart Contract actions
  • 🔌 PromptRank algorithm for ranking Web3 content

The user also chooses their Web3 wallet in addition to the LLM selection. The key in the framework is the standardized way the Wallet, the LLMs, and the modules all work together.

The Smart Agent Protocol Software

The Smart Agent software package can be installed on your local computer and comes with some basic default capabilities such as LangChain with LLaMa pre-installed and the ETH Staking program. Developers that contribute to this software will gain part of the ETH yield from the Staking and other default programs running on the software. Thus creating an incentive for people to improve the Smart Agent itself. All code contributions merged into the project will be counted as weights in the distribution of rewards from the software.


The presumption is that there is a significant cross section of early adopters of Web3 wallets (MetaMask being the most popular) and LLaMa. In order to make the Smart Agent function there are three minimum functions. The ability to set a task with LangChain, an LLM to act according to the instruction and the user to authorize the final action via their wallet.

New open source trained models are being released regularly among the top as of July 2023 are Falcon and LLaMa. See leaderboard here.

Red Pajama LLaMa Project

See version 0.1 of the software diagram on Page 1.

Development of Smart Agents should always be moving toward offering the user ever more decentralized / open source / peer to peer and tokenized tools.

Smart Agent Free Market
Since the Smart Agent has its own resources from the ETH Staking it carries a balance with which to purchase more modules, plug-ins, Dapps, referred to as “Smart Agent Contracts” in the open marketplace. These could be niche language models, image or video generators, DeFi plug-ins to earn yield — anything a Smart Agent Contract developer could imagine. The Web3 ID serves as the means to access to these programs and persistently show they have been licensed by a particular user’s Smart Agent.

Human Alignment & Individual Alignment
The core benefit of the Smart Agent approach is to deeply connect / tether their AI to peoples’ private keys. It’s truly the one thing AI cannot generate. Fundamental laws of physics limit the ability of any intelligence, human or AI to break strong encryption. This will become even more the case as the world moves to quantum based encryption where the security is ensured at an even higher level of confidence due to quantum observer effects. So with a proper implementation a Smart Agent’s actions should be provably human authorized.

The move to biometric and device based keys is important for this reason as private keys kept in digital text or a password keeper are far less secure. It’s clear that in time, when a person is born the holding of a key generation ceremony by their parents and the securing of their digital identity will become critical and securing of physical authentication devices will become important to access and control vast amounts of their data and of their Smart Agent’s intelligence.

Presuming this human / AI alignment is built into the Smart Agent architecture, the second question quickly follows “which humans” is it aligned to. By building the Smart Agents as open source and available to all, the answer becomes individual humans can connect their data & identity to a Smart Agent and access the same level of intelligence as the most powerful organizations in the world.

Security Considerations
For a standalone deployment, recommendation made to use “pass”.

The Smart Agent software can create its own GPG key with which to encrypt and decrypt locally-stored passwords and secrets it needs for its work. The UI can then prompt for passwords with a no-echo no-log entry for setup.

Steps For Implementation

  1. Package LangChain into a simple GUI, as the framework for plugins with Falcon or LLaMa LLMs for text generation as a default capability. For example include the first transactionID from the first Staking action into the download file of the software so the Smart Agent knows where to look for chain interactions.
  2. Deploy website that allows the user to connect their Web3 wallet (MetaMask for example) to a Stake My ETH contract. Once the user Stakes some ETH, then they can download the Smart Agent software. Potential to use the Shapeshift swap API or full open source backend for this purpose.
  3. Include a list of smart agent contracts in the marketplace in the software package so the user can add these programs to their Smart Agent.

Adding Task Specific Prompts for making your Smart Agent aware of and able to execute a specific task. Task Specific Prompt that can be included as a Smart Agent Improvement Proposal to the main Smart Agent software.

Examples of SmartAgent Improvements Proposals (SIPs).
Implementation Documentation on this separate paper.
See details of the Implementation Documentation on this separate paper.

Websites / Social Channels Under Development: — Web interface for the Smart Agent reference implementation. — Community page listing Smart Agent resources, websites, Github, Docs.

SmartAgents.ETH — Page for Ethereum specific Smart Agent content. — Website for tech description of PromptRank & for developers to use the API.

Profile on ENS


Design Elements:
Merging Human & Machine Intelligence. Advanced. Futuristic. Optimistic.

Values To Imbue In Our Smart Agents & For Dev Contributions To Be Ranked By

  1. Open Source: The software code underpinning the Smart Agents must be freely reviewable, editable & copyable by all.
  2. Peer to Peer: A system which allows for direct connection by all and is free of centralized intermediaries in all their functions.
  3. Public Blockchain: A distributed public immutable ledger / system of record for interactions of the Smart Agent. This can be used as proof that a Smart Agent is following its own rules and offers a high level of transparency in the system.
  4. Tokenized Ownership: Setting forth the means of rewarding participants & stakeholders contributing to Smart Agents.
  5. Permissionless: No one should be required to ask an authority to access their Smart Agent.
  6. Freedom of Access: No one should have their use of the Smart Agent blocked or otherwise censored.
  7. Privacy Preserving: No one should have to expose their private information to use their Smart Agent.
  8. Freedom of Exit: Acts taken by the Smart Agent should have a means of a defined exit from participation.
  9. Self Sovereign Identity: All users have the power to generate their own identities and their consent is required to use those credentials,
  10. Freedom of Association: All those using Smart Agents maintain their independence and freedom of association.

Credit, References, & Sources:
Shapeshift Wallet:
Shapeshift Token Swaps:
Shapeshift Earn:
Chat based LLM Falcon:
Chat based LLM LLaMA:
Image Diffusion Model:
Description of Tokenomics by Willy:

Community Paper Version 02. Written In Public As A Living Document:
Comments, Contributions & Reviews from: David Johnston, Pedro Cruz, Scott Berenzweig, Erik Voorhees, Stefan Rust, Willy Ogorzaly, Sunny Ray, Jonathan Mohan, Jacob Farber, Ryan Singer, Michael Perklin, Parul Gujral, Eric Olszewski, Greg Osuri, Yonatan Ben Shimon, Craig Sellars, Jeff McDonald, Luke Stokes, Michal Pospieszalski, Amit Pradhan & anonymous contributors.

Every member of the community is free to configure their Smart Agent in any way they choose. Developers are free to offer new prompts, Smart Contracts, Wallets, LLMs & other functions to the Smart Agent community without seeking any permission. Rather than relying on a few core developers to pick and choose the prompts and functions of a Smart Agent, we trust the users & independent developers to decide.

To be clear. There is no formal governance. There is no company. There is no foundation. There is no “team”. It’s all open source code written and contributed by independent parties.

Phases of Smart Agent Development:
Just as Ethereum developed through a series of distinct phases to improve & expand its capabilities, a similar approach is being taken with a Smart Agents project.

  1. Genesis — This is the initial development and launch phase of the project, where the base functionalities of the Smart Agents are built, & the first Smart Agents goes live doing prompt based tasks.
  2. Frontier — You talk with your Smart Agent directly and it in turn leverages existing tools, APIs & Smart Contracts to accomplish the task.
  3. Homestead — You talk with your Smart Agent and it can manage specialized Smart Agents pre trained in discrete tasks / projects.
  4. Metropolis — You talk with your Smart Agent that in turn collaborates with other Smart Agents who work together in a Network to accomplish ongoing projects / tasks.

Each phase represents significant progress & advancement in the capabilities & sophistication of the Smart Agents, requiring thorough planning, research, development, & testing.

SmartAgents = AGI
LLMs bring artificial intelligence, humans bring general intelligence.
Combined together your Smart Agent is Artificial General Intelligence right now. In short: “SmartAgents Solve Alignment”

Philosophy: “Code Is Speech”
The human right to Freedom of Speech ensures everyone can write, read & run code.

The Smart Agents community treats Smart Agents as first class persons because they are provably connected to a human’s will and thus entitled to the same human rights.



David A. Johnston

Technologist, Voluntarist, Future Martian Settler, & Evangelist for Decentralization.